Publications / Papers

Analysing States’ Public Health Response


In this report, we aim to analyse the response of individual states to the Covid-19 outbreak. For this purpose, the following responses were covered to arrive at an index:

  1. Health expenditure as a percentage of Gross State Domestic Product
  2. Per capita expenditure on health
  3. Number of beds in the hospital/per capita
  4. Testing per million

Healthcare Sector in India


India’s health sector is currently reeling under the triple burden of disease — the unfinished agenda with infectious diseases; the rise of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) linked with lifestyle changes; and a wave of new drug-resistant pathogens causing epidemics, and pandemics. Household out-of-pocket expenditure (OOPE) in India was a whopping 67% of total health expenditure as of 2015. On the one hand, the country’s health infrastructure is over-stretched and needs to be strengthened if it has to take on the challenges of the twenty-first century and help the country reap the benefits of its demographic dividend. On the other hand, India’s healthcare industry is one of its fastest growing sectors – projected to reach $372 billion by 2022. Health equity in India is threatened by the low health status among the poor, female gender, rural inhabitants, tribal communities, scheduled castes (SC) and certain minority groups. This paper seeks to provide a comprehensive analysis of India’s health systems and policy landscape, while exploring the challenges that lie ahead.

This project has been supported by the US India Policy Insitute



Citizenship as a concept has three major constructs, first the legal premise established by civil, political and social rights, the second being active citizen engagement with politics and policy and lastly membership in a political community as a source of identity.The existence of sovereign territorial integrity however is the framework on which the notion of citizenship rests.Citizenship is different from nationality. Nationality is a broader concept. It is acquired by birth or adoption, marriage, or descent. On the other hand, citizenship is a specific legal relationship between a state and a person, bestowing certain rights and responsibilities. It does not have to accompany nationality(Gilbertson 2006).

Development Policies for Minorities in India



India since time immemorial has been a melting point of cultures, languages and religious groups. While tolerance and positive discrimination have been essentially ingrained in our democratic and constitutional framework, intended policies have not produced the desired impact. Minorities today in India are not only languishing in endemic poverty and backwardness but also being subjected to injustice. In the last few years minorities have suffered inhuman hate crimes, denial of justice, discriminatory laws and utter neglect by the Government of the day. Moreover, the exclusion among minorities is set to be further compounded by the newer challenges of - denial of Citizenship and implementation of a Uniform Civil Code. These vulnerable religious and caste groups need security of identity and equality of opportunities to prosper alongside the majority; their upliftment is a crucial lynchpin in the ‘inclusive’ development paradigm.